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Aleph Tav in Ancient Hebrew Purpose Modern-Hebrew from Right to Left

从太阳到月亮From the sun to the moon

犹太教日历如何从太阳历转换成目前的月亮历?

 

 
备注:本文材料来源由《耶路撒冷邮报》报导和Elior 教授–芝加哥大学神学院的公开演讲(英语演讲MP3语音)翻译组成,不足之处请谅解。
 
Prof Rachel Elior – Public Lecture At The Divinity School, Chicago University on The Ancient Faith of The Zadok Priesthood And How It Was Obliterated From The Religious Memory of Rabbinical Judaism 瑞秋. Elior 教授–芝加哥大学神学院的公开演讲(英语演讲), 重点是关乎Zadok洗德祭司的古老信仰, 以及它是如何从犹太教的宗教记忆中被抹杀掉的。
 
Prof. Rachel Elior explains how the sages invented Judaismas we know it. Prof_Rachel_Elior_Public_Lecturer_Univ_Chicago_2014.mp3 (瑞秋。艾历尔演讲音档)
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http://www.jpost.com/Magazine/Features/Article.aspx?id=141513
"From The Sun To The Moon” posted @ 09.28.2014 | 4 Tishri, 5775 《耶路撒冷邮报》报导
 
Prof. Rachel Elior explains how the sages invented Judaism as we know it. According to Prof. Rachel Elior of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the Rabbis were involved in nothing less than "a reinvention of Judaism”…The short reason … she suggests, was "a dispute over the calendar… ”scholars known as Pharisees who disputed the legitimacy of the Hasmonean priests and kings and who argued with the Zadokite priests about the solar calendar…".
 瑞秋. Elior 教授解释了犹太"圣人”是如何发明犹太教的。据耶路撒冷希伯来大学的瑞秋. Elior 教授说, 拉比们曾参与的无非是 "犹太教的重塑".....一个有力的理由显示.....她建议, 就是 "日历上的争议".....。"当时的学者们被称为法利赛人, 他们质疑 Hasmonean哈斯蒙尼王朝祭司和国王的"合法性”, 又与Zadokite洗德祭司群争论太阳历......"。
 
P.S. 翻译备注: Zadok 的字根取自 Zedek 希伯来音译:洗德公義;Melchizedek麥基洗德即公義王。麥基(王)洗德(公義),
Heb 希伯来书 7: 1 這麥基洗德就是撒冷王,又是至高神的祭司,本是长远為祭司的。
Heb 希伯来书 7:17 因為有給他作见证的說:「你是照著麥基洗德的等次永远為祭司。」
 
The scene could be out of the Haggada – a group of rabbis sitting on the floor in acircle through the night, probably reclining on pillows, scrolls scattered about them, engaging in heated disputation until the pale light outside signals that a new day is upon them. The fact that this particular gathering, mentioned in the Talmud, is held in anattic (aliyat gag) might suggest to a modern reader that there is something clandestine about it, perhaps a desire to take distance from Roman ears or even from the surrounding Jewish population. Clandestine or not, this meeting, and all the similar gatherings that preceded and followed, contained the seeds of revolution – the radical restructuring of Jewish religious thought and practice that followed the destruction of theTemple in 70 CE.
以下这一幕的场景应该是从 Haggada中的记载取出来的: 一群拉比整个晚上围成一个圆圈坐在地板上 , 有些拉比也可能斜倚在枕头上, 有好多圣经卷轴散落在他们身边, 而他们正从事激烈的争论, 直到拂晓的白光从外面发出新一天来临的信号为止。 这一个特定的聚会, 在《犹太法典〉塔木德中曾经被提到, 那是在阁楼 (aliyat) 中举行的, 这聚会也可能向现代读者暗示着其中"有秘密”在酝酿中, 这"秘密聚会”也许只是要提防罗马人的耳朵, 甚至与周围的犹太人保持一定的距离。 无论是秘密与否, 这次的会议以及之前和之后的所有类似的集会,都包含了相关犹太宗教革命的种子— 於是在公元70年,罗马行政长官摧毁圣殿之后, 有关当代的犹太宗教思想与实践从此彻底改组了。
 
According to Prof. Rachel Elior of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the rabbis were involved in nothing less than "a reinvention of Judaism… They were closing an old world based on prophecy and angelic revelation and opening the sacred canon to human reinterpretation.” A glimpse into that intellectual ferment is provided in the brief depiction in the talmudic tractate Shabbat (13b) of the rabbinic gathering, perhaps in Yavne – which had become the major center of Jewish learning after the destruction of Jerusalem.
据耶路撒冷希伯来大学的Elior 教授说, 拉比所参与的(这个秘密讨论)无非是 "犹太教” 的重塑 .....。他们正在关闭一个基于预言和天使启示的旧世界, 并打开了人类对圣经正典的全新诠释。”塔木德安息 (13b)的短文措辞显示了这一场拉比集会的简要描述,为此提供了这种学习圣经知识的一瞥, 或许是在耶路撒冷被摧毁后,Yavne(希伯来文,地名) —才成为了犹太教学习的主要中心。
 
Yavne   备注
 Significance for Judaism Edit 犹太教的意义
 Yavneh is considered the most significant site for post-biblical Jewish history after Jerusalem, since it was here that modern Judaism was born after the destruction of Jerusalem in the year 70 CE and the loss of the Second Temple, until then the centre of religious identity for the Jews.[4] The process started in Yavneh after 70 CE was essential for adapting Judaism to a new situation where there was no central Temple, in terms of laws, calendar, and liturgy.[4] This became the basis for Jewish religious practice throughout the world until today.[4]
Yavne 被认为是继耶路撒冷之后的犹太历史上最重要的地方,因为现代犹太教是在耶路撒冷被毁之后诞生的。公元70年罗马行政长官摧毁耶路撒冷之前,耶路撒冷是犹太人的宗教认同中心。[4]这一进程在公元70年后在Yavne开始,对于使犹太教适应在法律、历法和礼拜仪式方面没有中央圣殿的新情况是必不可少的。[4]直到今天,这已经成为全世界犹太人宗教实践的基础。[4]
 

"That man should be remembered with favor,” the passage says in reference to one of the participants in the meeting, "his name being Hananiason of Hezekiah, for if it were not for him the Book of Ezekiel would have been suppressed and withdrawn as its teachings contradict those of the Torah. What did he do? They brought him jugs of oil [for lamps] and he sat in the attic and expounded upon the texts [through the night].” "
该名男子应被铭记受传颂," 该段提到一个与会者在会议上说,"他的名字是 Hanania 哈纳尼亚是希西家的儿子, 因为如果不是他,以西结书将被压制和排除,凡与当时某些违反他们所谓"律法"教义以致被剔除其外的命运。他做了什么?他们给他带了壶油 [作为灯光]用于开启"书卷”亮光, 他坐在阁楼上, 详细研读求证关于经文的真义 [彻夜查考]。
 
What Hanania and his colleagues were engaged in was a culling ofall the Hebrew religious texts composed until that time. The works they would choose from this library would constitute the Jewish canon which henceforth would be the only texts deemed to have divine authority. Hanania哈纳尼亚和他的同事们所从事的正是对所有希伯来宗教文本直到那时进行筛选与剔除。后来的法利赛拉比们正是从这个图书馆所选择的作品来构成了今日犹太教的正典。并从此以后也成为了唯一被视为具有神圣权威的文本。
 
In the end, a consensus formed around 24 works, including the five books of the Pentateuch, which together would make up the Bible. But what of the works excluded from the canon? Many were of comparable literary and religious quality to those chosen, says Elior, a professor of Jewish philosophy and Jewish mystical thought. "To many of the Jews of the first millennium BCE,all the texts had been equally holy,” she says.
最终, 约24项论著形成了共识, 其中包括《摩西五经》的五本书, 它们共同构成了圣经。但是, 什么作品被排除在正典之外呢?钻研犹太哲学和犹太教神秘思想的Elior教授说, 许多人的文学作品和宗教素材都与所选的相当(挑选对他们有利的)。"对于第一个千禧年(上古世纪)的许多犹太人来说, 所有的经文都是同等神圣的。" 她说。
 
"The[excluded] Book of Enoch or Book of Jubilees were certainly not considered less sacred than the [canonical] Book of Judges or Esther or Daniel.” Yet the excluded texts – close to a dozen major works – were not just abandoned but excised as if they were a malignant growth. "(被排除的) Enoch 以诺书或 Jubilees禧年书,当然不会被认为比 [标准所谓正典] 的Judges士师记或Esther以斯帖或Daniel但以理书减少其神圣性。然而, 被排除的文本--接近有12部的主要作品--并不只是被抛弃掉, 而是被剔除、焚毁, 就好像它们是恶性(肿瘤)增长一样。"
 

"Who ever reads them,” declared Rabbi Akiva, one of the foremost sages involved in the process, "will have no place in the world to come.” Left to die, some of the expelled texts were rescued and adopted by another religion.
被认为最重要的圣人之一的拉比Akiva宣布说"不管是谁阅读这些书本,", "这人将在未来的世界上没有位置。”当他离开人世后, 这些被"驱逐”在犹太正典之外的文本被另一些宗教挽救和保存。
 
 
Newborn Christianity, which regarded itself as the successor of Judaism,incorporated these texts into its own corpus of holy works along with the Old Testament, as the Hebrew Bible came to be called. In time, Jewish scholars would rediscover the repudiated texts of their ancestors in Greek, Ethiopian(Geez), Syriac, Armenian and Slavic church translations.
后来兴起的新生基督天主教, 认为自己作为犹太教的后继者, 合并了这些文本加入到自己的圣经内,连同旧约, 希伯来圣经叫着旧约。Elior教授认为在时间长河上, 犹太学者将会重新发现与珍惜他们的祖先在希腊, 埃塞俄比亚 (GEEZ), 叙利亚人, 亚美尼亚语和斯拉夫教会所保存的所翻译的这些被否定的文本。
 
 
These writings, known as Apocrypha ("hidden scriptures” in Latin)would never be reincorporated into the Jewish library but would remain for scholars to puzzle over as they tried to understand by what criteria the texts had been rejected.
这些著作, 被称为外典次经 (拉丁语的 "隐藏的经文") 或许永远不会被重新放回到犹太图书馆内(或犹太正典), 但仍将继续成为圣经学者们的困惑, 因为他们试图理解那些被拒绝的文本究竟是在哪些"标准”下被拒绝的呢?
 
HALF A century ago another lost library with a mystery attached surfaced on the shores of the Dead Sea, this one having been literally lost for 1,900 years after being hidden in the caves of Qumran. Many of these Dead Sea Scrolls would have been suppressed, says Elior, for the same reasons that the previously known apocryphal books were suppressed.
约半个世纪前, 一座在历史中被遗失的图书馆, 在死海的海岸上浮现出揭开一大片历史神秘的面纱, 这一个在昆兰的洞穴中被隐藏了1900多年的重大图书馆重出人间。Elior 教授说, 这些死海古卷轴中的许多书也将继续被宗教界压制, 就像以前已知的书籍被压制的原因相同。
 
In her recently published (Hebrew) book, Memory and Oblivion – The Mystery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, she offers a bold and coherent narrative to explain events about which scholars have long heldcontrary views.
在她最近出版的一本希伯来文的书《记忆与遗忘》-关于死海卷轴的奥秘中, 她提供了一个大胆而连贯的叙述来解释当代那些圣经学者长期以来执持相反观点的事件(圣经正典、次经、伪经的争论)。
 
 
The short reason for the canon/Apocrypha divide, she suggests, was a dispute over the calendar. The more profound explanation involves a power struggle between the old priestly order that believed its rulings to be divinely inspired and an emerging class of rabbis espousing a different narrative, one which gave human reason and laws a role in shaping the religion.
她认为, 圣经正典/次经的短暂隔离的原因是针对日历的争议。更深刻的解释是涉及到一个古老的祭司秩序和新兴的拉比之间的权力斗争,因为前者祭司们相信其裁决是来自至高全能者神圣的启示和这批新兴的拉比却拥护不同的日历(阴历)叙述, 后者是一个以人为本的理由和法律来塑造的新兴宗教。
 
 
Elior demonstrates how mystic notions like cosmic calendars and heavenly chariots were part of a power struggle whose outcome would affect how Judaism is practiced to the present day. For centuries the Israelites had marked time according to a solar calendar drawn up by the priestly caste but regarded asdivinely inspired.
Elior 展示了像宇宙日历法(太阳历)和天堂战车这样的神秘概念来畅抒这在当代属於一场权力斗争的一部分记录, 这场日历之争其结果影响到了今日的犹太教是如何被实践成今天的模式。上古几个世纪以来的以色列人,都是按照祭司家族制度所制定的太阳历来标明时间, 并且被视为是来自至高全能者的神圣指示来设定的。
 
 
The calendar emulated the pattern set by YHWH when He created the world in six days and rested on the seventh. The number seven would become a mystic measure of Jewish time. The Israelites adopted a seven-day week, apparently the first people in the world to do so, and they too rested on the seventh day.
这祭司日历模拟了[雅吾瓦](在天上)所设定的时间模式, 就是祂在六天内创造了世界, 并在第7日休息。"七”於是成为了犹太人历代神秘的测量时间的制度。自古以来,以色列人通用一个七天的周期,显然是世界上第一个民族这样做的,而且他们也在第七天休息。
 
 
Every seventh year was designated a‘shmita’ year when the earth itself rested and lay fallow. Each cycle of seven times seven years, 49 years in all,would be followed by a jubilee year, a new beginning when indentured servants were freed and leased land reverted to its original owners.
每第七年都被指定了一个 shmita土地安息年, 好让当地的土地休息和闲置一年。每周期七个七年, 第49 年, 及紧随其后的是一个禧年, 一个新的开始, 让所有契约中的仆人被释放, 租赁的土地归还给原来的业主。
 
 
The time between the exodus from Egypt to Moses’s meeting with YHWH on Mount Sinai would be remembered as seven weeks. Joshua would lead the Israelites across the Jordan in a jubilee year. There would be, until this day, seven days of mourning, seven days between birth and male circumcision, seven days of female menstrual impurity.
从出埃及到摩西与[雅吾瓦]在西奈山会面之间的时间, 将被铭记为七个"七周”。约书亚带领以色列人横跨约旦河是处在一个"禧年”。还有,直到今天, 七天的哀悼, 出生七天后的男婴包皮须环切, 七天的女性月经属不洁。
 
 
Elior terms the priestly calendar an exceptional mathematical construct that reflected a presumed cosmic order revealed to Enoch (Hanoch, inHebrew), an intriguing biblical figure central to the priestly narrative but shunted aside by the rabbis. In Genesis (5:18), he is mentioned briefly in the long list of descendents of Adam – the seventh generation of the patriarchs of mankind, and thus safely distanced from the incest that necessarily marked the earliest generations – but his listing is unique. As with all the others, itgives the number of years he lived – 365 in his case, not coincidentally the number of days of the year – and tells whom he begot – Methuselah, who lived 969 years and who in turn begat Noah.
Elior解释祭司日历具有一个特殊的数学规律,反映了一个预设的可推断的宇宙秩序,是由天使启示给以诺的(哈诺,希伯来音译),一个极富趣味与传奇的圣经人物,他是祭司们津津乐道的中心人物,却被历代拉比们搁置一旁。在创世纪(5:18) 中,他是亚当的后裔--人类的第七代族长的名单中,并且被特别的简单的提及过, 也从而安全地远离了那些被标志着近亲乱伦最早世代的人的名单中--他的记录是独一无二的。就像其他所有的人一样, 圣经记录了他生活在世的年数—365年;这岁数在他而言,应该不只是巧合地是一年中的天数 365?此外,还记录了他生了玛土撒拉:他活了969年;玛土撒拉生拉麦之后,拉麦后来才生了诺亚。
 
 
However, the thumbnail biography of Enoch does not end like all the others with the words "and he died.” Instead, it says "And Enoch walked with YHWH, and he was not; for YHWH took him.” The Bible does not elaborate on this, but the Apocrypha does. Several versions of the Book of Enoch preserved by the church have been found in different languages. (Several scrolls of Enoch turned up in Qumran as well, in Aramaic.) They describe Enoch being brought up to heaven and granted immortality along with a two-way ticket. At YHWH’s direction, he is taught by angels to read, write and calculate numbers – the first human given this knowledge. He then returns to earth to share with humankind what he has learned, including the solar calendar.
然而, 以诺的简略传记并没有像其他人那样以 "他死" 这个词作结束。他不是。相反的, 历史书记载说: "以诺与至高全能者同行; 因而至高全能者把他取去了。" 圣经没有详细说明这一点, 但是外传次经却提到了。当今天主基督教会中保存的以诺书有好几个用不同的语言叙述的版本都有提及此事。好多卷《以诺书》在昆兰区也出土了,是亚拉姆语版本。他们描述以诺还活着时后被提上了天堂, 并赐予永生, 还连同一张此地彼岸的"双向车票”。他在至高全能者的指示下,由天使教他读、写和计算数字 -- 这是第一个被赐予这个知识的人。然后, 他回到地上与人类分享他所学到的, 包括一套太阳历。
 
 
The priests, wrote Elior in an earlier book, The Three Temples: On the Emergence of Jewish Mysticism, viewed this calendar as "acyclic reflection of an eternal divine order.” The priests were the calendar’s guardians, privy to secrets imparted by angels and, like Enoch, would serve as conduits between the heavenly and the terrestrial. It was members of the priestly caste and prophets, many of whom were priests, who wrote the books that would form the Bible, and they wrote the books that would become the Apocrypha as well. "祭司群”, Elior教授在一本早期的书中《第三圣殿》曾提及: 关于犹太神秘主义的诞生期间, 他们把这个日历视为 "一个反映着永恒的神圣秩序的循环。"祭司是这份日历法的守护者, 知悉这是被天使所传授的秘密, 就像以诺一样, 他们成为了天上与地上之间的中介管道。这是一群祭司家族和先知的成员, 其中许多就是祭司本身;他们所书写的书, 会形成圣经, 他们所写的书, 也都成为了今日所谓的"外传与次经”。
 
 
Everything the priests wrote was considered sacred because they were, in effect, taking dictation from the angels. They regarded the angels as their heavenly counterparts and saw themselves as working with them to ensure asynchronization of the cosmic order in heaven and on earth.
 这些古代祭司所写的一切都曾被认为是神圣的, 因为他们实际上是从天使那里听写而笔录下来的。他们认为在天堂的天使是与他们同步同行,他们认为自己是与天使们一起同工工作,以确保在地球上和在天堂上的宇宙秩序同步。
 
 
 THE MOST tangible earthly manifestation of the solar calendar was the priestly work roster on the Temple Mount. Twenty-four priestly families,the same number as the number of hours in a day, took weekly turns attending to animal sacrifices and other Temple rituals. Like army reservists today, members of one of these families would go up to the Mount on Sunday morning and officiate until relieved by the next family a week later.
这《太阳历》最有形的具体表现是圣殿的祭司工作名册。二十四祭司的家族,与一天的24小时时数是相同的数字, 他们每周轮流负责动物祭祀(献祭)和其他圣殿仪式。就像今天的后备服役军人一样,这些家族中的成员将在每周安息日上午到圣殿主持圣职, 直到一周后的下一个家族接任轮班才解除工作。
 
 
 These priestly "watches” gave a time frame to the life of the entire community, says Elior. From the time the Temple was built by Solomon in the 10th century BCE, the High Priest was chosen from a family line descended from the priest Zadok, who had carried the Ark of YHWH in David’s time and anointed David’s son, Solomon, as king.
Elior教授说, 这些祭司的 "轮班表" 给整个社区的生活提供了一个时间框架。从圣殿由所罗门建造之时起, 在公元前第十世纪, 大祭司都是从祭司(中文圣经译为撒督)Zadok洗德(希伯来音译为洗德 …. 即公义的意思)的后裔中拣选, 他曾在大卫逃亡时运载至告全能者【雅吾瓦】的约柜, 并膏立大卫的儿子所罗门为王。
 
 
 The last Zadokite (Sadducee) high priest was ousted during the political chaos that preceded the Hasmonean revolt in the second century BCE.The Hasmoneans, a priestly family but not of the Zadokite line, cast out the Hellenizers from Jerusalem but instead of restoring the Zadokite line installed their own members in the high priesthood. Some of the Zadokites and their followers challenged the legitimacy of the Hasmonean priestly leadership and seceded from Temple service.
最后一个 Zadokite洗德祭司群(Sadducee) 的大祭司在 Hasmonean哈斯蒙尼起义之前的政治混乱中被推翻了。Hasmoneans哈斯蒙尼, 也是祭司的家庭, 但不是 Zadokite 洗德祭司群一脉相传的洗德(大祭司)传人, Hasmoneans哈斯蒙尼从耶路撒冷政治混乱中驱逐了(Hellenizers勾结外部势力的犹太团体), 但并没有恢复 Zadokite 洗德(大祭司)传人,却安插了他们自己的成员任职为大祭司。一些 Zadokites 洗德祭司传人和他们的追随者挑战 Hasmonean 哈斯蒙尼大祭司领导的合法性, 也从此逐渐退出了在耶路撒冷圣殿的服务。
 
 This conflict between the Zadokite "secessionists,” as Elior calls them, and the Hasmonean usurpers is the theme of many of the most interesting scrolls found at Qumran. Elior views the Qumran scrolls as a Zadokite library, not an Essene library as has been the consensus view. Amid the chaos and intense religious ferment of the Hasmonean period (152-37 BCE), new voices began to be heard–those of scholars known as Pharisees who disputed the legitimacy of the Hasmonean priests and kings and who argued with the Zadokite priests about the solar calendar and their claims to possess an open line to the divine.
这个 Zadokite洗德祭司与" secessionists新兴的祭司分裂势力"之间的冲突, Elior 教授称Hasmonean 哈斯蒙尼祭司,篡夺圣殿祭祀这样的主题,一直出现在昆兰区许多非常有趣味的卷轴中。Elior教授认为昆兰死海古卷轴是 Zadokite 洗德祭司群的图书馆, 而不是像一般学者所认为是艾色尼人的图书馆。(最近2年研究学者达成共识,确认昆兰死海古卷轴是 Zadokite 洗德祭司群的图书馆)
 
在 Hasmonean哈斯蒙尼祭司时期的混乱和激烈的宗教发酵 (152-37 公元前), 新兴起的拉比学者被称为法利赛人开始公开质疑 Hasmonean 哈斯蒙尼大祭司和国王的合法性, 但是同时间却也与 Zadokite洗德祭司群争论太阳日历和洗德祭司群他们所声称拥有一条直达天庭神圣的开放性的专线。
 
 
These scholars, who would become known as rabbis or sages, were unhappy about the exclusiveness of the priests and the power they had accrued through their claims to esoteric knowledge as confidants of angels. In a game-changing move,the rabbis declared that the age of prophecy had long since ended and that the priesthood had been severed from ongoing access to higher authority. According to one rabbinic tradition, prophecy had ended with the destruction of the First Temple in the sixth century BCE.
 这些被称为(法利赛)拉比或圣人的学者, 对洗德祭司的排他性和洗德祭司他们通过宣称已深获深奥的知识作为天使的知己所积累的神圣权力深感不满。在一场改变游戏的行动中, (法利赛)拉比宣布"预言的年代早已结束, 祭司群的特殊待遇也早已被切断, 将无法继续与宗教无上的权柄连线了。”根据一个拉比的传统, 圣经的"预言”早在公元前第六世纪第一座圣殿被破坏时已经结束了。
 
 
According to another, it ended when Alexander the Great and the Hellenizers arrived two centuries later. The priests vigorously rejected this downsizing.The rabbis favored a lunar calendar, says Elior, because they saw it symbolically freeing the nation from dependence on a closed priestly caste locked into the solar calendar and claiming divine authority.
 另外有说法, 它(这祭司制度)是在亚历山大大帝(Hellenizers 希腊化)两个世纪后到达时结束的。当时祭司极力反对裁员,缩小祭司体系。Elior 教授说, (法利赛)拉比偏爱阴历(月亮历), 因为他们认为它象征性地解放了以色列国, 不再依赖一个以太阳历来宣称其独特的有神圣权威的封闭式的祭司家族手中。
 
They wanted to symbolize instead man’s share in the determination of time and of his own fate. "They declared that human understanding of sacred writings was alegitimate source of authority.” The month would now not commence according to a solar calendar precalculated for eternity but by mortals scanning the sky for the new moon, perhaps disagreeing about the sighting among themselves, perhaps even erring.
 他们想在时间和命运的决策上能加入象征"人”的参与名额。"他们宣称人类对神圣著作的理解应该具有权威性的解读合法根源。每个月份将不会根据太阳历预先计算好永恒不变的来持续进行, 而是由凡人观察天空出现新月来作定夺;即或有不同的观看"月亮”的目击证人在他们自己之中, 以及也许因而会犯错的事故会发生。
 
 A MODERN-DAY reminder of the rabbinic victory in their epic struggle with the priests can be witnessed outside Orthodox synagogues one night a month, when the congregation emerges to pronounce the prayer for the new moon. In choosing the works that would comprise the biblical canon, says Elior, the principle criteria of the rabbis was to exclude those which invoked the solar calendar and endowed the priests with ongoing divine authority. "They were saying by this, ‘The old age has ended and a new age has begun.” Similar symbolic moves would follow the French Revolution when a radically new calendar,including a 10-day week, was adopted, and following the Russian Revolution when the Gregorian calendar used in the West was substituted for the Julian calendar followed by the Russian Orthodox Church.
一个属於"现代的”月亮历时刻常常提醒着法利赛拉比们的胜利的,就是在他们史诗般与祭司群之间斗争胜利的结果,可以体现在每个月的一个晚上, 众人聚集在犹太教会堂前等候一个新月份的到来, 当会众中出现了见证人宣布看到新月并宣布为新月份祈祷时。Elior教授说, "在选择构成圣经正典的作品时, 法利赛拉比的原则标准是排除那些援引太阳历的人,以及所有赋予祭司们持续持有神圣权威的任何著作。"他们说,"预言已经结束了,新时代已经开始。" 类似的象征性举动历史上有例可列举,例如跟随法国大革命结束时, 当代一个全新的日历出现了:包含一个10天一星期周期的日历被采纳了。又随着俄罗斯革命结束时, 西方国家尾随俄国东正教教会新日历的使用而纷纷使用公历来取代了朱利安日历。
 
The issue was less the measure of time, notes Elior, than the measure of man’s sovereignty. Alongside the texts that the rabbis accepted into the canon, they created a parallel framework of oral law which they themselves– not the priests – would develop and which would become ever more relevant over the centuries to the evolving circumstances of Jewish life. The first major compilation, the Mishna, would be completed by 200 CE. In the following centuries, sages in Palestine and Babylonia would complete the Talmud. These compilations would remain oral – the ancients having a capacity for memorizing enormous texts – until the eighth or ninth centuries when they were finally put into writing. The sages represented a strongly democratic strain. Study was open to all Jewish men and was not amatter of dynasty and inherited privilege. Rabbi Akiva had been a shepherd.Other sages had been farmers and craftsmen. Resh Lakish was a reformed bandit.
Elior指出, 这个日历问题其实相比于衡量时间的因素,衡量"人为的主权”才是症结所在。除了以法利赛拉比所接受的经文作为正典外, 他们还建立了一个平行的"口述律法”框架, 是由他们自己--而不是祭司—从这个基础上发展出一套全新的系统, 并且在几个世纪后, 犹太教与犹太人的生活起居饮食的情况演变成与此"口述律法”息息相关。第一个主要的汇编,Mishna, 完成于公元前200 CE。在第二圣殿毁灭后接下来的几个世纪里,巴勒斯坦和巴比伦的法利赛圣人们陆续完成了《Talmud犹太口述法典》。那时,这些汇编仍然是口头上的(这些古代圣人具有能力能记忆这套巨大的文本),一直到第八或九世纪, 它们最终被写下来编辑成书。圣人们的谈论呈现出强烈的民主紧张氛围。所"研讨"的课题对所有的犹太男人开放, 而不是被某皇朝和任何世续继承特权者来垄断下结论。拉比爱基瓦是个牧羊人。其他圣人有的是农民和工匠。 Resh Lakish是个被改革过的土匪。
 
 
The Oral Law, says Elior, was "open to study and interpretation by the entire male Jewish population.” The meritocracy that emerged displaced the hereditary leadership of the priestly clans which had traced their dynasty,link by link, back to Moses’s brother, Aaron.
Elior 教授说, 所谓的口述律法 "开放给整个男性的犹太人去研究和解释"。这些新兴法利赛拉比出现的精英阶层取代了那些追溯到他们祭司氏族的世袭领导层, 他们的根源可联系到摩西的哥哥亚伦身上。
 
 "Ther abbis transferred the center of gravity,” says Elior, "from aregular, priestly ritual, anchored in holy time and holy place, to an ever-changing order entrusted to sages from all classes of the population, who took charge of humanly declared time and taught a new perception of holiness.” "拉比转移重心," Elior 说, "从一个定期的, 祭司仪式性的, 锚定在神圣的时间和神圣的地方, 到一个不断变化的秩序委托给这些从所有阶层的人来组成的拉比圣人群。只有他们合格负责向人类宣布时间表, 并教导会众一个全新的关于"神圣圣洁”的看法
 
 
The debate between the sages and the priests ended abruptly with the Roman conquest. Following the destruction of the Temple, the priestly order was shattered and the rabbis were free to reconfigure the playing field. They not only discarded the apocryphal texts but, according to Elior, probably amended some passages in the books they would include in the Bible tominimize references to the solar calendar, to angels and to the story of Enoch. By doing so, the sages prepared the Jewish people for the long haul through the ages.
 法利赛拉比圣人和祭司之间的争论突然以罗马征服耶路撒冷而告终结。在圣殿被毁坏之后, 祭司的任命就完全被粉碎了, 从此,法利赛拉比们可以自由地重新配置其宣教平台(运动场)。他们不仅丢弃了次经的文本, 根据 Elior 教授的说法, 他们可能修改了圣经中的某一些段落, 以便降低必须参考太阳历、追寻天使和以诺的故事等需要。通过这样做, 法利赛圣人为犹太人民可以渡过一个未来的非常漫长岁月的新宗教生活作好了准备。
 
The conduit to the divine was no longer a monumental building in Jerusalem served by a priestly caste. As they went into exile, the Jews took with them the Sabbath and the Bible but were no longer dependent on a specific holy place or on priestly intermediaries. From now on a quorum of 10 ordinary Jews assembling in the humblest of rooms, or in no room at all, could, anywhere in the world talk directly to YHWH.
於是,通过神圣的管道(祭司家族)不再是停留在耶路撒冷的那一座不朽的建筑, 那是由祭司家族服务的。当他们流亡时, 犹太人带着他们安息日和圣经, 再也不用依赖于一个特定的圣地或祭司家族来做中间人。从那时起, 10 位普通的犹太人聚集在一个最简陋的房间里, 或者根本不需要一个特定的空间, 就可以在世界的任何地方直接的与至高全能者【雅吾瓦】交谈了。
 
 
读后感:从太阳到月亮 From the sun to the moon
 
Prof Rachel Elior – Public Lecture At The Divinity School, Chicago University on The Ancient Faith of The Zadok Priesthood And How It Was Obliterated From The Religious Memory of Rabbinical Judaism
瑞秋. Elior 教授–芝加哥大学神学院的公开演讲(英语演讲), 重点是关乎Zadok洗德祭司的古老信仰, 以及它是如何从犹太教的宗教记忆中被抹杀掉的。
 August28, 2014http://man-child.com/?p=2023
 
This lecture is a must listen – it summarizes much of the information presented by Prof Elior in her book entitled "The Three Temples” in a way that is easily understood. This public lecture by Prof Rachel Elior,(Professor of Jewish Philosophy and Jewish Mystical Thought at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem) was given recently as a visiting scholar to the Divinity School of the University of Chicago. Prof Elior presents a very definitive lecture on how the ancient documents of the Qumran library testify to the ancient Zadok Temple Priesthood, their principles of faith and how their spiritual worldview dramatically contrasts with that of Rabbinical Judaism.
这个讲座内容是必须公布于世,好让更多的世人能洗耳恭听的--它总结了 Elior 教授在她题为 "第三圣殿" 的书中所提供的许多信息, 这一个讲座的内容是很容易理解的。 这场公开演讲人瑞秋. Elior 教授 (犹太哲学和犹太神秘思想学学者,在耶路撒冷希伯来大学任职) 2014年被芝加哥大学的神学院邀约作为访问学者。Elior 教授就昆兰图书馆的古代文献如何证明古代洗德圣殿祭司、他们的信仰原则以及他们的精神世界观与目前犹太教的显著反差,提供了一个非常明确的演讲。
 
 
For those seeking clarity and truth on the ancient history of biblical Israel,especially in regards to the biblical calendar, the Maccabean period and the160 years immediately prior to the coming of Yahushua Melchizedek are extremely significant to understand precisely how the Pharisee/Rabbinics gained hegemony over the second Temple and exiled the biblical, lawfully constituted Temple Priesthood, ultimately resulting in a new "Judaism” which was consolidated over the subsequent 300 years after the destruction of the second Temple.
对于那些寻求圣经真理和以色列古代历史的人士,特别是关于圣经的日历、节期,公元160年前Maccabean 马加比时期和第一世纪【雅吾赎瓦】麦基洗德的到来是一项非常重要的线索,这可用来理解当年法利赛的拉比们如何在第二圣殿获得霸权, 并放逐属于圣经中所指定的合法组成的圣殿祭司, 最终导致一个新的 "犹太教"出现;这新兴的 "犹太教"在第二座圣殿被毁随后的300年期间得以巩固,直到今日。
 
 
It is our conviction that the revealing of the Qumran documents to the greater public domain is in truth a Divine herald and a last days Divine prophetic exhortation to the remnant of both houses of biblical Israel. We are convinced that Prof Elior, being a leading Jewish scholar of Jewish religious thought, is presenting a message that not only calls Rabbinical Judah to examine their religious foundations but also calls the rabbinically influenced "messianic” and "Hebrew roots” movements to do the same. The result of a true examination of all the facts in the light of all the biblical scriptures will be a single conclusion to those who really seek Divine Truth – all evidence will point all once again to the identity of Yahushua of Nazereth being the Melchizedek High Priestly Order of heaven and earth, and being the Lamb of YHVH that takes away the iniquity of remnant biblicalIsrael..
 我们的信念是要更公开的向更大的所有领域揭露昆兰的文献实际上是来自一群神圣祭司的先驱的手,也是末日有圣经预言的实现。是向以色列南、北两家分散全地的余民所发出的神圣预言性(以西结书37章)的告诫。 我们确信,Elior 教授是本着犹太宗教思想的重要犹太学者来发言,但是她却被天父使用向这时代的人群提出了这一个跨时代性的信息,不仅仅呼吁目前犹太教信徒检讨他们的宗教基础,尤其是对于那些被"称为拉比”观点所影响的人们,同样的,这信息对于目前的"弥赛亚"犹太根源的信徒运动者和追寻"希伯来根源"者都起着同样的冲击力。根据所有圣经经文对所有事实的真实检验结果, 对于那些真正寻求神圣真理的人来说, 所得到的都将是一个单一的结论—就是所有的证据都将再次指向Nazereth 拿撒勒人Yahushua 【雅吾赎瓦】的身份,因为祂就是麦基洗德大祭司,天和地的秩序根系于祂,祂就是YHWH 【雅吾瓦】的羔羊,是能够带走今日分散在全地的真以色列家的余民们的罪孽的。
 
Given what we read in the biblical prophecies, We expect this last days herald of the ancient Zadok testimony will soon convict Judah once again in these very last days, to hear the testimony of John the Baptist who called all to repent and prepare for the coming of the Lamb of YHVH. This is because of John’s biblical heritage was the last High Priest from the House of Zadok (of the biblically legitimate Aaronic order over the ancient Temple Priesthood) and to hear once again John’s proclamation of the biblical identity of Yahushua Melchizedek.
鉴于我们在圣经预言中所读到的, 我们期望这最末后的日子, 来自古代Zadok洗德祭司(古卷手抄本)的证言将很快会在这最后的日子里再次指控今日的"犹大”!请聆听施洗约翰的证词, 他叫所有的人"悔改", 为【雅吾瓦】的羔羊的到来作好准备。。这是因为施洗约翰是符合圣经预言中 (符合亚伦合法的神圣命令) 的最后一位大祭司。今日,我们也将再次听到施洗约翰宣布了Yahushua 【雅吾赎瓦】就是【麦基洗德】是合格合法是永远作为【雅吾瓦】大祭司的身份。
 
 
As the prophets declare – and so all Israel will be saved – a deep spiritual repentant re-awakening in the remnant of the House of Judah to the historical identity and ministry of John the Immerser and his message, (who was declared by Yahushua to be a spiritual shadow type of the Elijah that was prophesied to come to proceed the Redeemer of YHVH, the Teacher of Righteousness and King of Biblical Israel who restores all things…) together with a deep spiritual repentance to biblical truth in the remnant of the House of Israel to finally "come out of her” will result in the birth pangs of the new redeemed nation which is ultimately born through an exodus from out of the nations of the world, that will be greater than that which occurred in the time of Moses from ancient Egypt… May Favor, confidence and joy in the Name of Our Heavenly Father, The Aloahiym of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob unto you daily!
正如先知所宣称的—从此,所有以色列全家都将得救--在犹大人的预言中, 施洗约翰和他所传讲的悔改的信息在当代显然已带来了历史性深邃的属灵新觉醒 (他曾被Yahushua 【雅吾赎瓦】宣布为后来的先知以利亚,他是按着【雅吾瓦】的预言来为YHWH【雅吾瓦】的救赎者,义人的老师和圣经中恢复末后的以色列国的【弥赛雅)来预备道路的...)。这一回,从旷野传来的死海出土古卷的呼声,也必将同样的带来一个深刻的末世属灵悔改与复兴的新局面:就是回归到圣经的真理,带领与【雅吾瓦】立约的真以色列全家的余民最终都"走出她"当下深陷囚牢的巴比伦系统;也因而很快的,我们(与【雅吾瓦】立约的真以色列全家的余民)最终也都会经历一场"新生”的阵痛,以过渡到一个被赎回的 【弥赛雅】国度里。是的,最终这一次的大出走是通过从世界各国、各地、各民就是所有归属弥赛雅【雅吾赎瓦】名下的子民们的大出走,将会比摩西从古埃及时期带领以色列民出埃及时所发生过的出走更浩大、更彻底、更加永恒 .....。哈利路【雅吾瓦】,哈利路【雅吾赎瓦】,哈利路雅!阿悯。谨此以我们天父【雅吾瓦】的圣名:亚伯拉罕、以撒和雅各的至高全能者,来祝福大家每天都被从天上来的恩惠、信心和喜乐所充满!Shabbat Shalom。

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